Optical windows are often made of glass, but can also be made of other materials such as quartz, sapphire, or fiber optics. Optical windows can be either flat or curved.
Optical Prisms are used to redirect light at a designated angle. Optical Prisms are ideal for ray deviation, or for adjusting the orientation of an image. An Optical Prism's design determines how light interacts with it. When light enters an Optical Prism, it either reflects off an individual surface or several surfaces before exiting, or is refracted as it travels through the substrate.
This application is utilized by refractometer and spectrographic components. Since this initial discovery, prisms have been used in "bending" light within a system, "folding" the system into a smaller space, changing the orientation (also known as handedness or parity) of an image, as well as combining or splitting optical beams with partial reflecting surfaces. These uses are common in applications with telescopes, binoculars, surveying equipment, and a host of others.